20–29 June 1984

The History of Respiration

Poster of 4th Course. Credit: Fonds Grmek / IMEC.

Poster of the 4th Course.
Image courtesy of the Grmek collection (Fonds Grmek) at the Institute for Contemporary Publishing Archives (IMEC) IMEC

List of topics

  1. Respiration from the Greeks to the 18th century
    1. Theories of respiration in Classical Antiquity
    2. The Middle Ages and Renaissance
    3. Iatochemistry and pneumatic physiology
    4. The contributions of Spallanzani and Lagrange
  2. Lavoisier's theory of respiration and its influence
  3. Physiology of respiration in the 19th century
    1. Discussions of the site of respiration
    2. Calorimetry and basal metabolism
    3. Fermentation as a respiratory process
  4. Cellular respiration. Warburg's respiratory ferment and its influence in biochemistry and cellular biology
  5. Intermediary oxidative metabolism
    1. Redox reactions
    2. Energetic cycles in the cell
    3. Mechanism of conservation and transport of energy
  6. Respiration in plants
  7. Molecular biology of respiration. Structure and function of hemoglobins. The hemoglobin as a “molecular lung”
  8. Homeostasis and regulation of respiration
    1. Respiratory reflexes
    2. The study of respiration in extreme conditions
    3. Regulatory mechanism of respiration
    4. Genetic epistemology and pedagogy of respiration theories

One day of the Course will be devoted to the work of Otto Warburg to celebrate the centenary of his birth.
The meeting, which will be held in Naples, has been organized by Prof. Francesco Ghiretti and lectures will be given by: T. Bücher, M. Aloisi, G. Forti, F. Ghiretti, G. Jori.

Full lectures

  • G. Allen (Washington University)
  • A. Debru (University of Paris)
  • J. Edsall (Harvard University)
  • G.O. Geison (Princeton University)
  • A. Giordan (University of Geneva)
  • M.D. Grmek (EPHE, Paris)
  • R. Hahn (University of California, Berkeley)
  • P. Halleux (University of Liège)
  • C. Halleux-Opsomer (University of Liège)
  • F.L. Holmes (Yale University)
  • P. Kremer (Harvard University)
  • R. Olby (University of Leeds)
  • G. Risse (University of Wisconsin)


  • F. Abbri (University of Florence)
  • P.G. Abir-Am (Robinson College, Cambridge)
  • V. Cappelletti (University of Rome)
  • C. Castellani (Milan)
  • C. Debru (University of Paris)
  • J.L. Fischer (Sorbonne, Paris)
  • P.J. James (Cambridgeshire College of Arts and Technology)
  • G.H. Müller (University of Saarlandes)
  • J. Roger (Sorbonne, Paris)

General Information

The aim of the Course is to favour discussion among scholars of different fields. Each lecture will be followed by an ample discussion and therefore the number of participants will [be] limited to 45. We regret tht, owing to [the] limited number of places available in the lecture hall, it will not be possible to allow any person not selected by the Committee to attend the Course. The working languages will be English, French, and Italian; detailed summaries, in English or French, of the lectures will be available. As in previous years, some of the lectures will be published in History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences.

There will be a US$ 250.00 registration fee per participant, payable following notification of acceptance. This sum will cover accommodation and full board for the period of the school. A limited number of grants will be available upon application.
Applications, together with a detailed curriculum vitae, should be sent to Jean Ann Gilder, Historical Unit, Stazione Zoologica, Villa Comunale, 80121 Naples, Italy.

Director of the School: M.D. Grmek (EPHE, Paris)
Director of the Course: F.L. Holmes (Yale University)
Director of the Stazione Zoologica: A. Miralto
Scientific Organization: B. Fantini (Dipartimento di Genetica e Biologia Moleculare, Rome)

Stazione Zoologica di Napoli